https://www.britannica.com/biography/Gustav-Stresemann, The Nobel Prize - Biography of Gustav Stresemann, History Learning Site - Biography of Gustav Stresemann, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Gustav Stresemann, First World War - Who's Who: Gustav Stresemann, Gustav Stresemann - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). They had two sons. In 1900 he received his doctorate with a dissertation entitled “The Growth of the Berlin Bottled-Beer Industry.” The subject of his study, based on his knowledge of his father’s business and dealing with the decline of a sector of small business as a result of competition from giant industry, was characteristic of his origins as well as of his point of view. After losing his seat in the new Reichstag elections in the same year, he traveled with other business leaders to the United States to study economic conditions. 69. Unusually rapid success in commerce gave him a springboard into politics. In 1888, Germany had three emperors: Wilhelm I, Frederick III, and Wilhelm II. In the Weimar Republic of 1919-1933, the office of Vizekanzler was mentioned in the internal reglement of the government.   Centre He was elected in 1907 to the Reichstag (parliament) as a National Liberal from the Annaberg district in the Saxon metal-mining country, thus gaining a foothold in national politics. [4], The office was initially established by the 1878 Stellvertretungsgesetz (Deputation Act), which provided for the Imperial Chancellor appointing a deputy, officially known as Allgemeiner Stellvertreter des Reichskanzlers (General Deputy to the Imperial Chancellor). He occupied leading positions in a number of trade associations, including the German-American Economic Association, established at his suggestion.   DDP While a student he belonged to a relatively progressive fraternity and retained a lifelong attachment to the sentimental glories of student life. This is the case, if a newly elected Bundestag meets for the first time, or, if the Chancellor dies or resigns. Gustav Stresemann, (born May 10, 1878, Berlin, Germany—died October 3, 1929, Berlin), chancellor (1923) and foreign minister (1923, 1924–29) of the Weimar Republic, largely responsible for restoring Germany’s international status after World War I.With French foreign minister Aristide Briand, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1926 for his policy of … The appointment is an exclusive power of the Chancellor. A general deputy has been introduced only in 1878 by law (Stellvertretungsgesetz). The ministry of the exterior was considered to be the most important cabinet post besides the Chancellorship. He presided over the integration of East Germany into West Germany in 1990 and thus became the first chancellor of a unified Germany … He believed in the spiritual, military, and economic superiority of the German Empire, and his political idealism manifested itself in a sentimental enthusiasm for the heroic liberalism of the revolutions of 1848, as well as in a romantic style of speech. He was appointed by Chancellor Angela Merkel (CDU) to the position on 14 March 2018 and also serves as the Federal Minister of Finance. At school he displayed an unusual gift for history, especially modern history. BERLIN (AP) — Chancellor Angela Merkel says officials have agreed to extend Germany’s lockdown until Jan 31. The chancellor is the head of government and, according to the constitution, gives this title of deputy to one of the Federal Ministers. (Reporting by Madeline Chambers; Editing by Daniel Wallis) Of Jewish extraction, Stresemann’s charming and elegant wife played a leading role in Berlin society of the 1920s. Vertretungsregelungen für das Amt des Bundeskanzlers und des Bundespräsidenten (AZ: WD 3-3000-016/14), p. 3–4. The current office or title exists since the constitution of 1949. Germany’s long-serving chancellor didn’t make it any easier as she failed to actively promote a successor—the flipside to her being the first chancellor ever in Germany’s postwar history to decide herself when to the end her own political career, after announcing she will step down after the next election, scheduled for the fall of 2021. This kind of substitution has never been made use of in the history of the Federal Republic. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Stresemann was the son of Ernst Stresemann, a Berlin innkeeper and beer distributor. It was used against him in future political struggles by right-wing opposition. Roman Herzog, in: Maunz/Dürig: Kommentar zum Grundgesetz, 2008, Art. Often involved in conflicts over his support of social-welfare measures with the right wing of his party (which was dominated by representatives of heavy industry), he attracted general notice at his first appearance at a party congress in 1906. Spahn was a fierce critic of Merkel's 2015 open-door migrant policy and lost a CDU leadership election in 2018. .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  FKP Should a chancellor resign, die or be permanently unable to perform her duties, the vice chancellor does not automatically replace her. As a member of the pan-German Deutscher Kolonialverein (German Colonial League) and an advocate of a strong naval construction program, he supported the imperialist goals of German policy carried out under the aegis of Alfred von Tirpitz and Bernhard, Fürst (prince) von Bülow. Tirpitz had served as state secretary of the Imperial Naval Office, in which post he created the German battle fleet, and Bülow was chancellor of Germany (1900–1909). The Deputy to the Federal Chancellor (German: Stellvertreter des Bundeskanzlers), commonly known as Vice Chancellor (Vizekanzler), is the second highest ranking German cabinet member. After completing his studies, Stresemann began his professional career in a trade association. Sachstand. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. His wife, whom he married in 1903, was the sister of a fraternity brother and the daughter of the Berlin industrialist Adolf Kleefeld. He was especially interested in the lives of great personalities, particularly Napoleon and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, both of whom fascinated him throughout his life and inspired several of his literary studies. Stresemann, attending the Universities of Berlin and Leipzig from 1897 to 1900, first studied literature and history but changed to economics, probably to improve his professional prospects rather than in recognition of his practical gifts. [5] In 2012, Forbes magazine ranked German Chancellor Angela Merkel as the world’s second most powerful person and the highest-ranked female ever. Grundgesetz-Kommentar, Band 2, 2. Wissenschaftlicher Dienst des Bundestages. The vice chancellor may head cabinet meetings when the chancellor is abroad. The German cabinet consists of the Chancellor and the Federal Ministers. Strongly represented in Saxony at the time, the party became Stresemann’s political home. In an expertise issued by the Bundestag's scientific service in 2014, the legal opinion is that this is the case. Its current Chancellor is Angela Merkel and it plays a central role in the European Union. He had been appointed chancellor by the President of Germany, who had appointed and dismissed three chancellors in the previous 12 months. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Frederick III died from cancer of the larynx at age 56, having ruled for just 99 days. The end of a Chancellor's term in office (either by death or resignation or the first meeting of a newly elected Bundestag) automatically terminates the office of any minister. The function of vice chancellor is to use the specific constitutional powers of the chancellor in case that the chancellor is unable to perform her duties. The Federal Republic of Germany, with 83 million inhabitants, is … 69, Rn. Omissions? Author of. 7, 17-19. It became soon obvious that the position of Vice Chancellor provided no powers and was unsuited to constrain Hitler. And there was nothing stopping him from doing the same with Adolf Hitler. Angela Merkel is a German politician best known as the first female chancellor of Germany and one of the architects of the European Union.   FDP As a Dresden city councillor from 1906 to 1912 and editor of the Dresden magazine Sächsische Industrie (“Saxon Industry”), Stresemann became a well-known writer on economics and an expert on municipal affairs. Ute Mager, in: von Münch/Kunig: Grundgesetz-Kommentar II, 5. He energetically defended the interests of the commercial middle class, but his advocacy of extended social-welfare legislation embroiled him in a conflict with the representatives of his party’s right wing, which in 1912 prevented his reelection to the National Liberal Party executive committee. A German cabinet exists only as long as the current Chancellor is in office. The current Vice Chancellor of Germany is Olaf Scholz (SPD). 9. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/themen/geschaeftsordnung-der-bundesregierung-459846, "Gesetz, betreffend die Stellvertretung des Reichskanzlers ["Stellvertretungsgesetz"] (17.03.1878)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vice-Chancellor_of_Germany&oldid=993948314, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Deputy Minister-President (until 14 August 1919) /, This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 09:57. It is common that the title is given to the major minister … By Steven Brown PUBLISHED: 19:51, Fri, … 69, Rn. In the Federal Republic (since 1949), the Chancellors have had no interest in allowing the Deputy to use the title for self promotion. Merkel became the first female Chancellor of Germany in 2005 and is serving her fourth term. Nevertheless, a German government is usually based on a coalition of two or more parties and the Chancellor gives the title to a minister of the second largest coalition party upon recommendation of that party's leadership. 10/11 zu Art.   Green, German Empire (Allgemeiner Stellvertreter des Reichskanzlers), Weimar Republic (Allgemeiner Stellvertreter des Reichskanzlers). In every day politics, being a vice chancellor is more an honorary title. The party chairman, Ernst Bassermann, helped to advance his political career, and Stresemann was soon considered Bassermann’s “crown prince.” Stresemann was primarily interested in economic policy both as a journalist and a deputy. Last Updated: 10th January, 2021 15:29 IST Germany Health Minister Spahn Considering Run For Chancellor To Replace Merkel: Reports Jens Spahn is reportedly looking to run for chancellery in the next parliamentary elections in September 2021 to replace the current officeholder Angela Merkel. The Chancellor is elected by the Bundestag and appointed by the President of Germany. This tradition faded away in the time of Merkel's office, partially, because political heavyweights of the coalition partner chose a different ministry for personal preference. If this happens, the President of Germany appoints the former Chancellor or, if this is not possible, one of the former cabinet ministers (not necessarily, but most likely the former Vice Chancellor) as Acting Chancellor, until the parliament elects a new Chancellor. On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed as the chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg. As an administrative assistant in the German Chocolate Makers’ Association from 1901 to 1904, he gained a reputation as an accomplished organizer and negotiator. The German cabinet's rules of procedure state that in absence of both office-holders cabinet meetings shall be chaired by a cabinet member designated for this purpose by either the Chancellor or the Vice Chancellor or, if such a designation has not taken place or if the designee is not able to do so, by the present cabinet member with the longest uninterrupted membership in the federal government (§22.1). Gustav Stresemann, (born May 10, 1878, Berlin, Germany—died October 3, 1929, Berlin), chancellor (1923) and foreign minister (1923, 1924–29) of the Weimar Republic, largely responsible for restoring Germany’s international status after World War I. A chancellor's election is necessary whenever the office of Chancellor has fallen vacant. Corrections? As a liberal Prussian Protestant, Stresemann became a typical representative of the chauvinistic spirit prevailing in imperial Germany.   DNVP, Political Party: Political Party: No one anticipated— really could have anticipated what was to come.   SPD At 28 he was the youngest deputy in the Reichstag. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Professor of Modern History, Postgraduate School for Administrative Sciences, Speyer, Germany.   DVP The chancellor is the head of government and, according to the constitution, gives this title of deputy to one of the Federal Ministers. Hindenburg made the appointment in an effort to keep Hitler and the Nazi Party “in check;” however, the decision would have disastrous results for Germany and the entire European continent. 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